Apple Rootstocks

Dwarf

Bud 9 (Budagovsky 9)

A low vigor rootstock producing a tree similar to, or slightly smaller than, M9-337 in size. Bud 9 is more winter hardy and less susceptible to fire blight than M9. It is very resistant to collar rot and moderately resistant to apple scab and powdery mildew. This rootstock requires support and supplemental irrigation is recommended particularly on lighter soils.

Geneva® 11 (M26xRobusta 5)

Geneva®11 is similar to, or slightly less vigorous than, M9-337 in size. It is moderately resistant to fire blight and woolly apple aphid but not tolerant to replant disease. Geneva®11 is resistant to collar rot, is very winter hardy, and has a high yield efficiency and large fruit size. This rootstock requires support and irrigation is recommended.

M9-337 (M-9 T337)

Resistant to collar rot and adaptable to a wide range of soils, the exception being light, sandy soils, M9-337 induces early cropping with large fruit size. A widely-planted rootstock in high-density orchards. This rootstock requires support and supplemental irrigation is recommended particularly on lighter soils.

Geneva®41 (M 27xRobusta 5)

Produces a tree similar to or slightly larger in size to M9-337. Geneva® 41 is immune to fire blight, crown rot and wooly apple aphid. Geneva®41 is very cold hardy and precocious. It is good rootstock to consider for replant sites. This rootstock requires support.

EMLA 9

A virus-free clone of M9, EMLA 9, like other M9 clones, induces early cropping with large fruit size. It is resistant to collar rot and adaptable to a wide range of soil conditions, though not light, sandy soils. Slightly more vigorous than M9, this rootstock requires support and irrigation is recommended.

M9-NIC 29 (RN 29)

A more vigorous clone of M9, this rootstock produces a less brittle root system than other M9 clones. Very precocious, M9-NIC 29 promotes large fruit size and early cropping. This rootstock requires support and supplemental irrigation is recommended.

M9-Pajam 2 (Cepiland)

Slightly more vigorous and productive than M9-337, M9-Pajam 2 is precocious and promotes large fruit size. This rootstock requires support and supplemental irrigation is recommended.

Geneva®214

Recently released by Cornell University, Geneva®214 is resistant to fire blight, crown rot and wooly apple aphid. It is highly yield efficient and productive, with efficiency equal to or greater than M9. Size is similar to, or slightly smaller than, M26. This rootstock requires support and supplemental irrigation is recommended.

Geneva®935 (Ottawa 3xRobusta 5)

Highly resistant to fire blight and collar rot, Geneva®935 is similar in size to M26 with efficiency similar to M9. It is very cold hardy and tolerant to replant disease, but susceptible to wooly apple aphid. Staking is recommended along with supplemental irrigation.

M9/EMLA 111 Interstem

Produces a tree similar to EMLA 26 in size. The advantage of this rootstock is that EMLA 111 provides excellent anchorage, while the M9 interstem creates a smaller, more compact tree. Suckering can be a problem with some interstem trees.

EMLA 26

A virus-indexed clone of Malling 26, EMLA 26 is more vigorous than EMLA 9, but less vigorous than EMLA 7. It produces larger fruit than EMLA 7 and is more precocious. EMLA 26 is susceptible to collar rot and should not be planted on wet or infected soils. It is also susceptible to fire blight. Staking and supplemental irrigation are recommended.

Geneva®202

Similar in size to M26, Geneva®202 is precocious and productive. It is resistant to firelight, collar rot and wooly apple aphid. It is tolerant to replant disease. Staking and irrigation are recommended.

Semi Dwarf

EMLA 7

A virus-indexed clone of M7a. EMLA 7, about 60% the size of trees on seedling, is very winter hardy. Anchorage is fair; however, it does not perform well on light sandy soils. It is fire blight resistant and moderately resistant to collar rot, though suckering can be a problem. It should have support for certain varieties like Red Delicious, Rome and Fuji.

Geneva®210

A replacement for Geneva®30 in the M7 size category with a yield efficiency similar to M9. Geneva®210 is tolerant to apple replant disease and resistant to fire blight, collar rot and wooly apple aphid. It is well anchored and does not require staking.

Geneva®890

A semi-dwarfing rootstock 50-60% the size of a seedling (similar to M7, but slightly less vigorous in Western states). It is more precocious than M7 and M106. G.890 is tolerant to replant disease, and resistant to fire blight, crown rot, and wooly apple aphid. It is a winter hardy rootstock with low suckering.

EMLA 106 (Northern Spy x Malling 1)

Moderate vigor, about 70% the size of trees on seedling, EMLA 106 is heavy cropping and resistant to wooly apple aphid. It is adaptable to a wide range of soils; however, it is susceptible to collar rot and should not be planted on heavy soils that are not well drained. Well anchored.

EMLA 111

Produces a tree approximately 75% the size of trees on seedling. It is well anchored and resistant to wooly apple aphid and collar rot. Adaptable to a wide range of soils.

Bud 118 (Budagovsky 118)

Very winter hardy, Bud 118 produces a well-anchored tree similar in size to EMLA 111 or larger. It is resistant to collar rot, but slightly susceptible to crown gall and powdery mildew. Recommended for dry, sandy sites.